This year marks the 55th anniversary of the Civil Rights Act, the landmark legislation outlawing racial segregation and other forms of discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The Civil Rights Act of and the Fair Housing Act of banned discriminatory lending, zoning, and renting practices -- addressing but not undoing segregation and racial disparities that remain unchanged in many cities and neighborhoods.
Here are the most segregated cities in America. Segregation often limits access to education and employment opportunities for residents of minority communities and contributes to racial disparities in urban areas.
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For more on residential segregation, see our analysis of the worst congressional districts for black Americans. Vacation on a budget: Here are some of the cheapest US spots to travel in November. Retirement Spending: The 4 realities that you need to know now. Erie, Pennsylvania is a metro area of approximatelyresidents on the south shore of Lake Erie.
Due to the large disparities between black and white residents in terms of income, health, and other socioeconomic measures in the city, Erie ranks as one of the worst cities for black Americans. Income is one of the largest determinants of health, and in Erie, 1, in everyblack residents die every year, a far higher mortality rate than the white mortality rate of deaths perwhite residents in Erie and one of the highest black mortality rates of any U.
One of the major determinants of income is education, and in Atlantic City, just Jackson is a relatively small metro area of approximatelyresidents located some 70 miles west of Detroit. Similarly, while One factor contributing to the large wealth disparity in Jackson may be the high unemployment disparity. Located approximately 50 miles southwest of Chicago, Kankakee, Illinois, is one of several Rust Belt metro areas where the disparities in education, poverty, and other socioeconomic measures between white and black residents are far greater than the disparities across the nation as a whole.
While nationwide, High school education correlates strongly with poverty status. In Kankakee, Nationwide, the Syracuse is one of several metro areas where the decline in manufacturing jobs since the middle of the 20th century has created economic challenges and may have exacerbated racial disparities in income and other socioeconomic measures. Today, some The disparity in unemployment likely contributes to the wide black-white income gap in Syracuse.
Nationwide, In Rochester, People with a high school education are more likely to have higher wages than those without a high school education and are less likely to live in poverty. By comparison, nationwide, Springfield is one of several metro areas in central Illinois where disparities in income, education, and other socioeconomic measures are far greater than disparities across the nation as a whole.
One factor contributing to the income disparity in Springfield is the large gap in unemployment between white and black members of the labor force. While nationwide the black unemployment rate of Rockford is a small metro area of approximatelyresidents located about 80 miles northwest of Chicago.
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Some The gap in unemployment is one of the contributing factors to other racial inequalities in the area. Similarly, While nationwide This is one of the largest such gaps in the country. Those without a high school diploma are more likely to struggle financially, and in Peoria, some Owning a home is one of the most effective ways of building long-term wealth and avoiding the cycle of poverty.
The economic benefits of homeownership are not enjoyed equally In Peoria, where just Like in many of the most segregated cities in Americathe segregation in Niles has likely lead to ificant differences in employment and education opportunities by race and contributed to the vast racial disparities in the metro area. Income is one of the main determinants of health, and in Niles, some 1, in everyblack residents die every year, far more than the corresponding white mortality rate of deaths perJust 5.
This is the fourth lowest share of all metro areas nationwide, and nearly one-third the Individuals without a college education are far more likely to live below the poverty line than those with a college education, and in Danville Poverty status is one of the largest determinants of health and longevity, and in Danville, health outcomes are far worse for the black population than the white population. For everyblack residents in Danville, 1, die each year, the third highest black mortality rate nationwide. The white mortality rate in the area is deaths perwhite residents.
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While white residents of the Twin Cities metro area are better off than white Americans nationwide in a of measures, the area's black population is worse off by several metrics compared to the black population nationwide. While Individuals without a high school education are far more likely to be unemployed than those with greater educational attainment.
In the Waterloo-Cedar Falls area, By comparison, the black unemployment rate nationwide of Just 7. Individuals without a bachelor's degree are more likely to live below the poverty line than those with a college education, and in Racine, Owning a home is one of the most effective ways for families to build long-term wealth and avoid the cycle of poverty.
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In Racine, just Milwaukee is one of the many Rust Belt cities where a history of redlining, exclusionary zoning, and discriminatory lending practices has contributed to segregation -- that remains today -- and to some of the largest racial disparities in income, health, and other socioeconomic measures in the country. While nationwide some Income is one of the primary correlates of health and longevity, and in Milwaukee, 1, in everyblack residents die every year -- over more deaths perthan the white mortality rate, one of the largest disparities nationwide.
Creating the index in this way ensured that cities were ranked on the differences between black and white residents and not on absolute levels of socioeconomic development.
For each measure, we constructed an index of the gaps between black and white Americans. The index was standardized using interdecile normalization so outliers in the data did not skew. Within the index, we considered data from the U. All ACS data are five-year estimates. Data on incarceration by race are for and came from the Bureau of Justice Statistics. These statistics were adjusted for population using one-year ACS data.
Because states, rather than metro areas, are responsible for the prison population, incarceration rates are for the state where the metro area is located. Using data on age-adjusted mortality rates by race for each U. Incarceration and mortality rates are perresidents.
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